Stories (6)

Humble lichens have been credited as sentinels of air quality.

Lichens are the mosaics of fungi that speckle tree bark and rocks at the ocean. In those precarious perches, lichens absorb their food from the fog the wind and the rain. With no roots but with very absorbent tissue, but no roots lichens are exquisitely vulnerable to gases released from any pollutants carried by the wind and rain. It is this sensitivity that makes lichens powerful sentinels of forest health.

Pollution builds up inside lichen tissues in proportion to its concentration in the wider environment. Anything poisoning lichens also accumulating more broadly in their environment.

Despite their plant-like form, lichens are not plants often called tiny ecosystems, they are actually compound organisms made up of two, or even three, very different partners, none of which is a plant. The dominant partner in a lichen symbiosis is a fungus, a colony of algae, supplying food by photosynthesis. Separated from its partners, the fungus itself would be a shapeless glob.

lichens aghulas

Lichens to dye for

An arsenal of nearly 600 chemicals unique to lichens helps them survive in marginal environments and ward off attacks by bacteria, other fungi and grazing herbivores. Many lichen species contain bitter compounds that may discourage feeding by invertebrates The pigments, toxins and antibiotics have made lichens very useful to people in an array of cultures as a source of dyes and medicines.

lichen Navajo clothThe warm brown rugs made by Navajo Indians. come from boiling the vagrant lichen, Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa. Known as a vagrant lichen because it grows loose on the ground, "ground lichen" is free to wander on the wind. Before weaving a rug or blanket, members of the Ramah Navajo Weavers Association raise and shear their own sheep, spin the yarns, and dye them with vegetal dyes "ground lichen" shown loose in the basket.

The lichens once used to dye Scottish Harris Tweed contain substances that gave the fabric an earthy aroma and reputedly made it moth repellent.

lichen dye groupShrubby grey lichens scraped off coastal rocks and soaked in ammonia-rich stale urine, yielded some of the famous royal purple dyes of antiquity.

The most widely used dye lichen among Native Americans was the eye-catching wolf lichen, Letharia vulpine. A tribe in Alaska traded coastal commodities such as fish oil for wolf lichen from the inland to colour their prized dancing blankets. Though famed as a wolf poison, the wolf lichen often becomes one of the prized medicines in tribal pharmacies. Medicinal tea was made from it or used externally to treat skin problems. The lichen substance usnic acid has been used in some European antibiotic creams.

lichens crustose-lichens-sylvia-sharnoffDesigner rocks

As if painted by a mad hand, a tombstone encrusted with lichens.

The brightly coloured crustose lichens used as medicines such as Pleopsidium oxytonum translates literally as “lizard semen”- alluding the push-ups that lizards do during courtship displays.


lichen_main science newsAlmost any stable surface makes suitable turf for lichens. Under favourable conditions, lichens will find a home on the stained-glass windows of cathedrals, even on the backs of Galapagos tortoises!

Growing imperceptibly for centuries - even millennia- some lichens are amongst the world’s oldest living things; this makes them useful to scientists for dating archaeological artefacts and tracking geological events such as the retreat of glaciers.

There are rich lichen floras in the intertidal zone in many places, and they are accompanied by a correspondingly complex set of invertebrates.

lichens snailLichens are prominent role players in transforming landscapes by slowly chipping away and dissolving rock into soil, adding organic matter when they die. In the Negev Desert, in Israel, two species of snails that eat lichens growing under the surface of limestone rocks ("endolithic lichens") were discovered to be converting rock to soil at the amazing rate of 0.7 to 1.1 metric tonnes per hectare per year! lichens desert

The action was due to the fact that the snails pass significant amounts of rock through their digestive tracts in the process of consuming the lichen. In addition, the snails were taking nitrogen from the lichens and leaving it behind in the new soil; this was found to be a principal component of the nitrogen cycle of this desert.

Environmental watchdogs

lichen -wolf moss Letharia vulpineFar from the rain-drenched forests of the Pacific Northwest, on the grey streets of 1860s Paris, a botanist named William Nylander was one of the first scientists to notice a peculiar pattern. More lichen species grew in the oasis of the Luxembourg Garden than elsewhere in the city. The park was less polluted than the rest of Paris.

Nylander made the connection: Better air quality meant higher lichen diversity. Protect them and everything else is safe.

Because of their extreme sensitivity, lichens are useful indicators of air quality. Thriving in pristine environments lichens are fast disappearing in regions of air pollution and habitat disturbance. Lichens act like sponges, taking up pollutants that come their way. By analysing lichens chemically, scientists can tell what’s in the air.


After winter rain, leafless forest trees come alive with lichens, including oakmoss lichen, an important ingredient in many fine perfumes. Virtually dormant when dry, lichens become bright, plump and metabolically active when damp.

Everything notwithstanding, lichens will keep growing and changing in step with the changing planet. They’ll breathe in the mountain air, soak up water as it drips down the trees and swell out from the mist rolling in from the sea.

Lichens will forever stand as a beacon of the air we breathe.


Science News

National Geographic

Various online


The East London aquarium is an interesting little aquarium with daily fish feeding, fun and informative thanks to a number of unique displays and features including a whale-watching deck, a breeding colony of African penguins and an exciting seal shows.

Penguins at the east London Aquarium

The aquarium has some beautiful large fish tank displays that feature most of the local fish population. The lighting of these tanks add to the experience of visiting this small but well planned and maintained establishment.

East London aquarium Tanks

All around this Aquarium is boards with well researched information about South African marine life.

Information Boards East London aquarium

There is a colony of African penguins, sea-turtles, seals, a variety of marine fish and seabirds. Unique to this Eastern Cape aquarium is the display housing three Cape pygmy clawed lobsters.


This aquarium also serves as a haven for injured, oiled and distressed marine creatures washed up on East London’s beaches, which total a few hundred seabirds, turtles and dolphins that are treated, rehabilitated and released every year.

Oil birds East London aquarium

The Southern Right whales migrate annually down the coast of South Africa to their arctic feeding grounds and come close inshore at East London and with this in the mind the aquarium built an eleven meter high platform that sits right above the surf and provides an excellent opportunity to watch these magnificent animals breaching in the bay. This is build just above the pool where a couple of seals are staying.

Cape Fur Seals - East London

The East London Aquarium is South Africa’s oldest aquarium, and opened it’s doors in 1931, a must-see for visitors to this charming coastal city, now called Buffalo City in the Eastern Cape.

The Aquarium is open daily from 09:00 in the morning till 17:00 in the afternoon The Seals show and Penguin feeding run daily at 11:30 in the morning and 15:30 in the afternoon Entrance fee is R28 for adults, R17 for children (3 to 18 years) R11 per child in school group and R17 for pensioners.


Napier, the quaint little village on the Cape Whale coast

One cannot pass through the quaint little town of Napier in the Overberg without synchronising your time with the giant sundial, generally accepted to be the largest sundial as well as the only vertical one in South Africa. It stands as beacon next to one of the municipal offices.

It was when he read an article written by CJ Langenhoven on sundials that had been reprinted in Die Burger in 1936, that Danie Du Toit’s interest was piqued. This sparked in him a special desire to create his own sundial.

Langenhoven 1926 sundail

CJ Langehoven has drawn up plans for a sundial as far back as in 1926. This replica of his design was erected on his farm Arbeidsgenot in the Oudtshoorn Municipality

Since Danie Du Toit's early years, the observations of the stars sparked an interest in everything celestial. He developed a sharp sense of interpreting the movements of the sun and the shadows it cast and researching the stars. It was this ability, that has not faded with the time, that made him noticed that one pillar at the Napier station where he was then employed was longer in winter.

Danie also noticed that the shadow fell at the same place at four times a year. This meticulous observation and the article written by Langenhoven was all the inspiration he needed to build his own sundial.

Napier Sundail Napier's Iconic Sundial

Cecil Fick was the town clerk of the Napier Municipality in 1965. With foresight and a love for the town, he made a decision to help to establish an iconic landmark for this little village in the Overberg. Danie Du Toit could build his sundial. Jan Engel, a local craftsman, was assigned to the plastering job and the municipality supplied all the materials.

By studying the midday shadows, Danie could establish north and south without a compass. He then built an east to west line. When the ‘gnomon’ – the metal rod- was in position, he started making marks; one for every two minutes.

It took him 18 months just to complete the markings for each minute, based solely on his observations of the shadow on the dial. Using his table, which explains the corrections between the sundial’s time and standard time, the time of day can still be determined within an accuracy of 30 seconds!

When Danie Du Toit died in 1974, this man with no training in his field, left this delightful little village a legacy that became a lasting monument to his ingenuity.

Credits: SJ Du Toit & Napier Municipality & various websites


Oom Joon se parskuipe vandag

Klein biekie wyn..

“Ek het in laat 50' s nog gesien hoe word druiwe eers met ou handpars wat op Bo winkel se stoep gestaan het fyn gemaal. Dan word sap en doppe afgedra in sink emmers na die ou parskuip en daarin gegooi en vir week laat gis. Dan is dit onder uitgetap en in vate in my Oupa Stoffel se kelder in vate gegooi. Mens na so twee maande dan word daai suur mos gedrink. My Oupa het vreeslik jig in sy hande gehad. Dan kom dr van Napier. Gee hom inspuiting. More is hande reg. More aand dan vat hy maar weer suur mos. Ja, ou Baarskeerdersbos. Lankal nie meer wat dit was nie.

Ek weet nog presies waar het watse vrugte bome gestaan. Waar die wingerd was. Die dam waar hulle die vate laat uitswel het.( laas gesien dam is nog effe daar). Oupa Stoffel se lemoenboom bos. Oom Joon se suurlemoen bome, die wat jy soos lemoen kon afskil.

Vrolike weduwees van Baardskeerdersbos- Landbouweekblad voorblad Vrolike weduwees van Baardskeerdersbos- Landbouweekblad voorblad

Johannes Pampoentjie en die petrol spook

Ook dat daar een middag 'n Chev of Ford kar by Ant Dienie se Bo Winkel uitgebrand het. Drie jong mans het petrol met die handpomp met groot glase in trekker se tenk op agter sitplek van kar ingepomp. Een het vuurhoutjie getrek vir siggaret en petrolgas wat buite kar en in kar was het ontplof. Snaaks die kar het net binne uitgebrand. Ek nie seker meer nie maar ek dink een was Johannes Pampoentjie. Selfs petrol in tenk binne het nie ontplof nie. My pa het ( ek was saam ) een of twee van mans Napier dr toe gery met sy twee ton Bedford lorrietjie want een se bene en ander se arms was gebrand. Ons het met sink emmers uit water sloot die brand in kar dood gekry. Ons het oorkant die winkel in huis met blou dak vandag gebly. My ma het poskantoor gehad voor Oom Pietertjie se vrou.. Figuurlik gesproke sal ek my siel verkoop vir stuk varkbloed met custard. Ai ja was goeie dae.

Oom Joon se kelder

So was daar een Sat nag by Oom Joon se kelder ( syne was op hoek van winkel na water sloot se kant toe ingebreek en mos wyn uitgetap. Eers kom polisie man van Elim ( die polisiestasie daar is vervalle gebou ). Nee se hy speurder moet van Bredasdorp kom. Hy kom later middag nogal met sy bloedhond daar aan. Ek het Sat oggend daar in sloot naby die wasboom em tafel in uitkeer sloot gespeel. Gaan die speurder mos en maak my spore in sloot met twee houtkissies toe. Mens ek hardloop huis toe en gaan kruip onder bed weg. My pa het my kom soek toe se ek speurder het my spore in water sloot toegemaak. Kyk hier daai tyd was jy k bang vir poliesman wat nog van speurder met bloedhond. Ja goeie tye gewees.

Dit-is-oupa-stoffeljie-jonas-se-huis- Oupa Stoffeltjie Jonas se huis

Witblits en wyn

Baardskeerdersbos het tot soveel as nege wynkelders gehad met vyf stook ketels. Parstyd en stooktyd was n belangrik bedrywigheid en n hoogtepunt vir elke Bbosser. Tot vandag is Witblits n gewilde drankie op die dorp. Enige denkbare kruie was bygevoeg soos bv. Anys, boegoe, naeltjies, lemoenskille, perskes en rooihoutjie wortels. Hanepoot en Chenin Blanc druiwe was gebruik. Vandag sien jy nog oral ou murasies van kuipe. Op Boesmansrivier by Gerhardt De Wet het n Kelder mooi behoue gebly. Dit was die Slanghoekkelder. Ja as al die glassies vol Witblits was, wie wil dan water he.

Baardskeerdersbos kerk

Ant Luitjie se kerkklok

Die kerkklok het sy eie storie. Baardekeerdersbos se NG –gemmente was eers deel van Stanford, maar het n behoefte gehad aan in eie gemeente. ? Sekere tant Luitjie het toe n sturk van haar grod geskenk sodat daar n kerk vir die inwoners van Bbos gebou kon word. So gemaak en in 1922 staan daar n splinernuwe kerk. Dit het nie lank geneem voor die jongklomp besluit het dat die kerk n ideale plek sou wees vir volkspele.

Tant Luitjie was vreeslik ontsteld oor hiedie “losbandigheid”. Sy voorspel toe vervloekend dat die mure van die kerk gaan inval, nes die Bybelse Jericho van ouds. Na tant Luidjie se heengaan het dit op n stadium vreeslik gereën en weliswaar tuimel die kerk se dak en mure inmekaar… kompleet soft ant Luitjie se voorspelling sou waar word! Die Bbossers moes toe die kerk herbou.

Een nag, om middernag, begin die kerkklok toe nou lui… mense het in hul nagkebaaie uitgestorm en die skuldige begin soek, maar niemand kon iets sien of kry nie. Almal het geglo dis tant Luitjie wat nie tot ruste kon kom nie. Die klok se middernagtelike geluiery het vir baie lank aangehou en die “spokery” het groot marakkas op Bbos veroorsaak. Die lewens wat die BeeBossrs gelei het, het skielik baie skoner geraak.

Rooi Laventel en Versterkdrupples was in elke huis te vind. Perdehoewe is bokant die voordeure vasgekap en die meeste van die witbltsketel was vir eers weggesit- skielik was die kerkie elke Sondag stampvol en die kollektes oordadig en mildelk! En toè…hou dit skielik op. Die klok was stil.

Original "Ant Luitjie se kerkklok" article: Lizette Payne

Die Beebossers het die skielike stilte glad nie vertrou nie en bang gewag vir wat volgende dalk gaan gebeur. Bang het naderhand verander in versigtig en mettertyd was versigtig by die agterdeur uit. BBos het weer sy normale gang gegaan. En alles was rustig. Die witblitsketels is uitgehaal uit die wegsteekplekkeen het werk gerky, die goewerment se man het weer op die wegsteekketels toegeslaan en die jongmense was weer net so “losbandig” as wat tant Luitjie beweer het. Alaml was maar net te dankbaar dat tant Luitjie uiteindelik rus en vrede gevind het.

Die rede vir die skielike middernagtelike stilte was natuurlik dat die kwajong-klokluiers ouer geraak en BBos verlaat het om op ander plekke te gaan werk. Baie jare later ontmoet die twee middernagtelike klokluiers- toeal albei afgtrede mane- mekaar toevallig een dag op Bbos en hulle raak aan die kuier. Laat die nag besluit hulle om vir oulaas weer die klok te loop lui. Swaar gekwes van die kuiery is die twee ou manne kerkklok toe, maar nog voor hulle nog behoorlik by die klok is, begin die klok vanself te lui..! Heeltemal binne-in n ander bloedgroep geskrik het die ou manne die stukke ingesit en gehol..want die kolk het die eers n tou gehad nie!

The church on Baardskeerdersbos has since been declared a National Monument.


Friday, 01 March 2019 09:18

Baardskeerdersbos stories

Written by


Brerend op BBos Berend van Baardskeerdersbos

Many legends and myths exist around the origin of Baardskeerdersbos or B(ee)Bos as fondly called by the locals.

The first written mention of Baardskeerdersbos can be traced to 1660 when Jan van Riebeek sent an expedition to explore the Overberg. A team of five men reported on the valley and its Khoikhoi-residents. No doubt the little expedition would have spent the night in the open air and encountered the small spider-like creatures called “Baardscheerders” (“Beard Shavers”) known for cutting human hair for nest-making purposes.

Now a grown man, one local remembered how his mother insisted that they sleep with a hat on when they had to sleep on the ground. Local historian, Jan Fourie, bust the myth by telling about the legend of a Khoikhoi captain who swapped the farm for a razor. Apparently, men came for a shave for the evening’s Strandveld dance. They met the barber underneath a bush. The end of the story is for your own imagination. Whatever it might be, the story of Baardskeerdersbos is as colourful as its residents.

BBos huisBaardskeerdersbos is situated between Gansbaai and Elim with old-world simplicity and charm. The local shop looks and smells of an old-fashioned trading store. It also serves as the post office, the bank, the tourism office and whatever other need might arise.

This intriguing hamlet with “five liquor licences, a church ….and no coffee shop!” is home to an eclectic mix of creative newcomers and more conservative older residents, many of whom are members of the original farming families of the area.

In early years it was not uncommon for the pupils of the school to be up to the age of 20. The classrooms were full, frequently with up to about 20 pupils in a classroom. Teachers had no easy task to maintain discipline. However, it was addressed in true Baardskeerdersbos style.

ier-is-n-klomp-opgerymde-Bbossers-in-die-laat-vyftigs-besig-om-te-sing.-SIEN-in-die-middel-Oom-Manie.-Daar-is-bekendes- A group of jolly BeeBossers from the late fifties

In his book, Wisselstrale oor die Strandveld, Jan Fourie described an incident when parents came to the school in protest against the teacher’s disciplinary policy. As soon as they all were gathered in the classroom, the teacher locked the door and put the key in his pocket. Parents were allowed to air all their complaints. At the stage where they wanted to know how the teacher dared to use a sjambok (pronounced shambuck – a thick leather whip) on their young ones he used the sham buck on all present, including the parents. The meeting ended in chaos. Only then unlocked

Parents were allowed to air all their complaints. At the stage where they wanted to know how the teacher dared to use a sjambok (pronounced shambuck – a thick leather whip) on their young ones he used the sham buck on all present, including the parents. The meeting ended in chaos. Only then he unlocked the door and gave each one a parting lash. It was the end of any disciplinary problems at the school.

Oom Pietertjie se lorrie met n paar passasiers

The Baardskeerdersbos farm was given to the Fourie and Groenewald descendants. Families were large and many nicknames resulted.

One colorful person is Snoekies. His real name is Hendrik Groenewald, well-known for his knowledge of horses and carts. The traditional bazaar is still a popular event on the Standveld calendar. Products were often auctioned reaching high prices. In 1923, one sweet potato was sold for £5.13.6 and a sheep for £70.

Lees meer oor... Die kleurvolle mense van Bbos …. paar onthou-stories

Friday, 01 March 2019 09:03

The Last Days of Blackbeard

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Blackbeard, the notorious pirate, had captured two vessels more than twice the size of his own—a feat described here for the first time. He could not have known that these would be the last prizes of his career and that in just three months he and most of his crew would be dead. Blackbeard, the notorious pirate, had captured two vessels more than twice the size of his own—a feat described here for the first time. He could not have known that these would be the last prizes of his career and that in just three months he and most of his crew would be dead.

An exclusive account of the final raid and political maneuvers of history’s most notorious pirateFor the 18 men aboard the French merchant ship Rose Emelye, the evening of August 23, 1718, was shaping up to be as routine as the 167 that had preceded it since they’d left Nantes. They’d spent the spring following the winds and currents across the Atlantic to tropical Martinique, and much of the summer unloading French cargo and taking on bags of cocoa and barrels of freshly refined sugar. Now they were following the Gulf Stream home in the company of another French merchant ship, La Toison d’Or, sailing just a stone’s throw behind and to leeward. The American mainland had disappeared behind the horizon days before. The next day would raise Bermuda above the horizon, the final way point before making landfall in Europe.Then, as the sun sank low in the sky, someone spotted sails bearing down on their stern.Over the next three hours the sky grew dark and the vessel drew ever closer. To the Frenchmen’s relief, it was a tiny vessel: a sloop with Spanish lines better suited to shuttling cargo between Caribbean islands than to crossing an ocean. Still, something wasn’t right. What was it doing out here in the open ocean, and why was it on an intercept course with the Frenchmen’s much larger oceangoing merchant ships? As the mysterious sloop overtook them and pulled alongside, they knew they would have answers soon enough.In the last moments, Capt. Jan Goupil would have seen three cannon muzzles rolled out of gun ports on the tiny sloop’s sides and dozens of armed men crowded on its decks. He ordered his crew of 17 to prepare for action, getting Rose Emelye’s four cannons to the ready. Remove yourselves, Goupil’s mate cried out to the men on the sloop, or we will fire!

Among the artifacts recovered this past year, a cannon—one of several on the former French slave ship. Among the artifacts recovered this past year, a cannon—one of several on the former French slave ship.

In the tiny sloop, a tall, slim man with a long black beard barked out an order. His helmsman threw the tiller hard to lee, men released ropes, and, sails briefly flapping, the strange vessel suddenly swung hard about, shooting by in the opposite direction.

Goupil’s skin may have turned cold. The sloop—the pirate sloop—swept down to the unarmed Toison d’Or. Minutes later the vessels’ wooden hulls came together with a moan. Pirates swarmed over the gunwales and onto the ship’s decks, seizing the crew, perhaps as human shields. The bearded man had fooled him. Now he found himself facing not one attacker but two.Soon the bearded man was alongside again and his men discharged their cannons. Musket balls flew over Goupil’s head. There was nothing to be done. He turned Rose Emelye into the wind, drifted to a halt and surrendered his command.

Blackbeard and crew killed a score of British pursuers before he was vanquished. His head hung from the bowsprit of a Royal Navy vessel Blackbeard and crew killed a score of British pursuers before he was vanquished. His head hung from the bowsprit of a Royal Navy vessel

Blackbeard, the notorious pirate, had captured two vessels more than twice the size of his own—a feat described here for the first time. He could not have known that these would be the last prizes of his career and that in just three months he and most of his crew would be dead.


Out of all the pirates who’ve trolled the seas over the past 3,000 years, Blackbeard is the most famous. His nearest rivals—Capt. William Kidd and Sir Henry Morgan—weren’t really pirates at all, but privateers, mercenaries given permission by their sovereign to attack enemy shipping in time of war. Blackbeard and his contemporaries in the early 18th-century Caribbean had nobody’s permission to do what they were doing; they were outlaws. But unlike the aristocrats who controlled the British, French and Spanish colonial empires, many ordinary people in Britain and British America saw Blackbeard and his fellow pirates as heroes, Robin Hood figures fighting a rear-guard action against a corrupt, unaccountable and increasingly tyrannical ruling class. So great were these pirates’ reputations—daring antiheroes, noble brigands—that they’ve been sustained ever since, inspiring 18th-century plays, 19th-century novels, and 20th- and 21st-century motion pictures, television shows and pop culture iconography. In his lifetime, Blackbeard—who terrorized the New World and died in a shipboard sword fight with sailors of the Royal Navy—captivated the public imagination like no other. He has never let it go.

Hollywood’s latest Blackbeard, Ian McShane, in the fourth Pirates of the Caribbean

Hollywood’s latest Blackbeard, Ian McShane, in the fourth Pirates of the Caribbean

And yet Blackbeard’s life and career have long been obscured in a fog of legend, myth and propaganda, much of it contained in a mysterious volume that emerged shortly after his death: A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates. Nobody knows for sure who wrote the book—which was published pseudonymously in 1724—but the General History almost single-handedly informed all the accounts that have come since. Parts of it are uncannily accurate, drawn word-for-word from official government documents. Others have been shown to be complete fabrications. For researchers, it has served as a treasure map, but one that leads to dead ends as often as it does to verifiable evidence, which scholars covet like gold.

In recent years, however, researchers have dug up new evidence, buried in the archives of England, France and the Americas, or beneath the sands of the American coast, allowing them to piece together a fuller and extremely compelling picture of Blackbeard and his cohorts, one that shows him to have been a canny strategist, a master of improvisation, a showman, a natural leader and an extraordinary risk taker.

At the end of his career, Blackbeard and his men camped on North Carolina’s Ocracoke Island, close to hideaways (an 18th-century map) and passing ships At the end of his career, Blackbeard and his men camped on North Carolina’s Ocracoke Island, close to hideaways (an 18th-century map) and passing ships

“Researchers are often drifting around without a rudder not sure what pirate stories are real,” says underwater explorer Mike Daniel, president of the Maritime Research Institute in Jupiter, Florida, who found the never-before-published account of the Rose Emelye’s capture buried in the Archives Départementales de Loire-Atlantique in Nantes in 2008. “Then all of a sudden you find documents like these and it’s like finding an island. There are solid facts beneath your feet.”

Many of the discoveries shed light on the final months of Blackbeard’s life, when he executed a series of daring schemes that, for a time, kept him one step ahead of his enemies as the golden age of piracy was collapsing all around him. They go a long way in explaining why a pirate active for, at most, five years has managed to grip the public’s attention for nearly three centuries.








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